Biology Sample Schedule/Paradigm A 4-year plan to complete your Biology major+ More The major paradigm below above is an optimal pathway to completion of the major. However, several factors affect a student's ability to follow this specific pathway, including timing of a student's decision to major, course availability, course demand, course scheduling conflicts, and faculty availability. Therefore, a student should expect that he/she will not likely follow this specific pathway to completion of the major. A student may use the paradigm as a resource and preparation guide, but a student's academic advisor is the best resource for planning course schedules. Freshman Year - Fall LCT140 First Year Seminar 3 E120 English Composition 3 B110/111 Botany & Zoology I & Lab I (Areas NS) 4 * C131/133 General Chemistry I & Lab I (Area NS) 4 * M151 OR Calculus I (Area QS) 4 M148 Calculus/Precalculus I Credits: 18 Freshman Year - Spring B120/121 Botany & Zoology II & Lab 4 C142/144 General Chemistry II & Lab 4 General Education Content Area/Oral Communication Requirement 3 General Education Content Area 3 M149 Calculus/Precalculus II (if needed) 3-4 OR General Education Content Area Credits: 17-18 Sophomore Year - Fall LCT225 Perspectives on the Good Human Life (may be taken spring semester) 3 ID160 Artscore 2 B301 Ecology & Lab 4 C321 Organic Chemistry I 4 General Education Content Area 3 Credits: 16 Sophomore Year - Spring B310 Genetics 4 B313 Physiology 4 ** C322 Organic Chemistry II 4 General Education Content Area 3-4 Credits: 15-16 Junior Year - Fall LCT375 Global Issues (may be taken spring semester) 3 B311 Cell Biology 3 B392 Biometrics 3 P210/202 Introductory Physics I & Lab I (Area NS) 4 General Education Content Area 3-4 Credits: 16-17 Junior Year - Spring B409 Biochemistry 4 B492 Experimental Planning 1 ** P211/212 Introductory Physics II & Lab II 4 General Education Content Area 3-4 General Education Content Area 3-4 Credits: 15-17 Senior Year - Fall LCT475 Capstone (may be taken spring semester) 3 B412 Molecular Biology 3 Elective 3-4 Elective 3-4 Elective 3 Credits: 15-17 Senior Year - Spring B493 Biology Research & Thesis 2 Elective 3 Elective 3 Elective 3 Elective 3 Elective 3 Credits: 17 It is highly recommended that students take 3 credits of Computer Science. * To enroll in C131/133, a student must have passed the equivalent of college algebra. A student may meet the requirement for college algebra and calculus by taking the sequence M148 and M149. In this case, M148 and M149 should be taken during the first year and C131/133 and C142/144 during the second year. M151 may be taken after the first year, but M149 or M151 should be completed before P201/202 (M151 may be concurrent). ** These courses are strongly recommended but not required for the Biology major but are required for all graduate and medical school acceptance. Electives in Biology may be selected based on student interest and additional requirements to fill prerequisites for graduate or professional schools. It is the responsibility of the student to complete all major and university requirements. Please refer to the university catalog for additional information regarding this major. Course title and content is subject to change. Not all courses are offered each semester or year. Please consult with your major advisor for the most current information. Students enrolled in the Lasallian Honors Program should consult the program director for the appropriate sequence of courses. Course descriptions + More (From the 2011-13 Catalog) A. Biology Core All of the following: B110 - Botany and Zoology I (3 credits) Emphasis is placed upon photosynthesis and respiration, and physiological processes including nutrition, gas exchange, transportation and regulation of body fluids. It is an investigation of the structure and function of both plants and animals and intended as an introductory overview. Three lecture/discussion periods are held weekly. Offered fall semester. Concurrent registration in B111 is required. B111 - Botany and Zoology I Laboratory (1 credit ) These laboratory studies complement the concepts presented in B110. Investigations including physiological and molecular relationships and interactions are the basis for the course. The lab meets for one three-hour session each week. Offered fall semester. Concurrent registration in B110 is required. B120 - Botany and Zoology II (3 credits) Emphasis is placed on plant and animal phyla, organs and organ systems of both plants and animals. Three lecture/discussion periods are held weekly. Offered spring semester. Concurrent registration in B121 is required. B121 - Botany and Zoology II Laboratory (1 credit) Laboratory studies complementing B120 include plant and animal hormones and reproduction, bacterial techniques, and phylogenetic investigations. The lab meets for one three-hour session each week. Offered spring semester. Concurrent registration in B120 is required. C131 - General Chemistry I (3 credits) This course covers the fundamental principles upon which the study of chemistry is based. Stoichiometry, atomic structure, molecular structure, chemical bonding, behavior of gases, kinetic molecular theory, properties of solutions, chemical reactivity and thermochemistry are included. Three hours of lecture per week. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: M151 placement, or M149, or minimum grade of C in M148 with concurrent enrollment in M149; concurrent with C133. Students who complete C131/C133 may not enroll in C110. C133 - General Chemistry I Laboratory (1 credit) This laboratory is an inquiry-based approach to understanding the process of doing chemistry. Each week, as a team member with a specific role working for a consulting company, the student receives a letter from a ﾓchemical clientﾔ requesting the solution to a chemical problem. It is the responsibility of the team to design a solution, collect data, and report the results to the client in report form. Offered fall semester. Prerequisite: concurrent with C131 C142 - General Chemistry II (3 credits) This course includes the study of the chemistry of redox reactions, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium theory, electrochemistry, chemical dynamics, organic chemistry, phase behavior and solution chemistry. Three hours of lecture per week. Offered spring semester. Prerequisites: minimum grade of C in C131/133 and concurrent with C144. C144 - General Chemistry II Laboratory (1 credit) This laboratory is an inquiry-based approach to understanding the process of doing chemistry. Each week, as a team member with a specific role working for a consulting company, the student receives a letter from a ﾓchemical clientﾔ requesting the solution to a chemical problem. It is the responsibility of the team to design a solution, collect data, and report the results to the client in report form. Offered spring semester. Prerequisites: minimum grade of C in C131/133 and concurrent with C142. C321 - Organic Chemistry I (3 credits) Organized by chemical functional groups and reaction mechanisms, this course presents both classical and modern theories of organic chemistry while rigorously exploring chemical structure reactivity relationships. The fundamentals of nomenclature, physical properties, chemical structure, stereochemistry, organic-reactions, mechanisms, synthesis, purification, and compound characterization are emphasized. Biological, medical, and familiar real-world examples are discussed in the context of organic chemistry. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: C131/133 and C142/144; concurrent with C323 C323 - Organic Chemistry I Laboratory (1 credit) This laboratory complements the lecture segment of the course by demonstrating and utilizing the concepts learned in the classroom to acquire, isolate, and characterize desired organic reaction products. In this laboratory, students become familiar with the equipment, glassware, techniques, and expertise required to implement the chemistry proposed on paper, to optimize it, and to communicate it to the chemical community. A practical context for the developed chemical intuition is provided. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: C131/133 and C142/44; concurrent with C321 B. Either M148 and M149 or M151 M148 - Calculus with Precalculus I (4 credits) This course, followed by M149, provides a two-semester sequence that covers the material of a traditional Calculus I course along with built-in coverage of precalculus topics. Topics in M148 include: solving equations, functions, classes of functions (polynomial, rational, algebraic, exponential, logarithmic), right triangle trigonometry, angle measure, limits and continuity, derivatives, rules for derivatives. Credit is not granted for this course and M151 or courses equivalent to college algebra and college trigonometry. Prerequisite: mathematics competency satisfied. M149 - Calculus with Precalculus II (4 credits) This course completes the two-semester sequence that begins with M148, and together with M148 provides a two-semester sequence that covers the material of a traditional Calculus I course along with built-in coverage of precalculus topics. Topics in M149 include: trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions, rules for derivatives, applications of derivatives, and definite and indefinite integrals. Credit is not granted for this course and M151. Prerequisite: M148. M151 - Calculus I (4 credits) This course provides an introduction to the differential and integral calculus. Topics include: the concepts of function, limit, continuity, derivative, definite and indefinite integrals, and an introduction to transcendental functions. Credit is not granted for this course and M148 and M149. Prerequisites: departmental placement or courses equivalent to college algebra and college trigonometry. C. All of the following: B301 - Ecology with Laboratory (4 credits) A study of the theoretical and practical ecological concepts pertaining to species, populations, communities and ecosystems; stress is placed on the concepts of energy flow, nutrient cycles, limiting factors, population dynamics and succession. Laboratories include both theoretical and practical applications of concepts as well as some plant and animal identifications. Three class meetings and one three-hour laboratory/field trip each week. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: B110/111 and B120/121 B310 - Genetics with Laboratory (4 credits) The principles underlying hereditary variation in living organisms are the focus of this course. These topics are centered about the transmission of hereditary traits, cytogenetics, basic gene concepts, introductory molecular biology, population genetics, and the genetic basis of evolution. Three class meetings and one three-hour laboratory period each week with several laboratory periods replaced with a one-hour lecture/discussion. Offered spring semester. Prerequisites: B110/111 and B120/121 B311 - Cell Biology with Laboratory (3 credits) This course is a study of the cell at the ultrastructural, biochemical, and physiological levels. Special consideration is given to respiration, photosynthesis, secretion, cytoskeleton, cell cycle, cell growth, movement, membranes, and other organelles. Two lectures and one three-hour lab weekly with two laboratory periods replaced with a one-hour lecture/discussion. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: B110/111, B120/121, and C321 (C321 may be concurrent). B313 - Physiology with Laboratory (4 credits) This course explores the functions of the body systems of humans. The interrelationships of organ systems processes to maintain homeostasis are emphasized. Laboratory sessions provide experiences with procedures and instrumentation to gather data that highlight the function of the body systems. Course topics are particularly relevant to the health sciences. The class meets for three lectures and one three-hour lab weekly. Offered spring semester. Prerequisites: B110/111 and B120/121 Recommended: C142/144. B392 - Biostatistics (3 credits) This course introduces basic and fundamental statistics with emphasis on the more sophisticated tests and analyses common to biologists and other researchers. Substantial attention is given to analysis of variance procedures and experimental design. Credit is not granted for this course and any of the following: BU215, ST132, or ST232. This course was formerly listed as Biometrics. B409 - Biochemistry with Laboratory (4 credits) The principal concepts of biochemistry are the focus of this course. The major themes include the relationship between the three-dimensional structure of proteins and their biological function and the chemistry and metabolism of biologically important macromolecules including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids. Offered spring semester. Prerequisites: B110/111, B120/121, C321, and C322 (C322 may be concurrent with consent of instructor). B412 - Molecular Biology with Laboratory (3 credits) An analysis of the regulation of cellular metabolism at the molecular level is the core of this study. The major themes include the biochemistry of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and the regulation of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The laboratory component incorporates genetic engineering techniques. The class meets for two lectures and one three-hour lab weekly. Offered fall semester. Also offered as C412. Prerequisites: B110/111, B120/121, B310, B311 and C321 (B311 and C321 may be concurrent with consent of instructor). B492 - Experimental Planning (1 credit) The purpose of this course is to design a research project. The necessary reconnaissance, review of the literature, and other preparations are included. Some emphasis is also given to thesis writing and presentations. B493 - Biology Research and Thesis (2 credits) The course consists of an independent investigation of a field or laboratory problem of the studentﾒs choice in a specific area of biology. A written report of the research project in the form of a thesis is required; an oral presentation may be required, at the discretion of the research advisor. This course is a graduation requirement for biology majors. Prerequisites: B392 and B492. P201 - Introductory Physics I (3 credits) This course is the first half of a two-semester introductory, calculus-based, physics course for all students planning to enter one of the scientific professions. It covers the fundamental principles of mechanics, oscillations, and fluid mechanics. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: M149 or M151 (M151 may be concurrent) and concurrent with P202. P202 - Introductory Physics I Laboratory (1 credit) One three-hour laboratory is held each week covering topics studied in the lectures. Offered fall semester. Concurrent with P201. Recommended Elective Courses B305 - Human Anatomy with Laboratory (4 credits) This course explores the design and structure of the human body. Lectures present cellular and histological features of the body systems. Laboratory dissections explore gross anatomic features and the three dimensional relationships of structures particularly relevant to the health sciences. Body structures forming superficial features, those visualized by diagnostic imaging techniques and those relevant to kinesiology are empathized. The class meets for two lectures sessions and two two-hour labs weekly. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: B110/111 and B120/121 B322 - Developmental Biology (3 credits) A study of mostly animal development from genetic and molecular perspectives. A brief account of embryology is followed by gametogenesis, fertilization, embryogenesis, and organogenesis. All topics are covered with emphasis upon differentiation. Class meets weekly for three hours of lecture/discussion. Offered in alternate spring semesters. Prerequisites: B110/111, B120/121, and B310. B340 - Limnology with Laboratory (4 credits) Lecture emphasis is placed on physical and chemical principles and their interpretation. Attention is given to taxonomy, adaptations, distributions and abundance of organisms. Lab and field studies emphasize techniques and aquatic environmental assessment. Three hours of lecture/discussions and one three-hour lab/field study weekly. Offered spring semester. Prerequisite: B301 B434 - Microbiology with Laboratory (3 credits) This course deals with the morphology, physiology and biochemistry of a variety of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi and algae. Emphasis is placed on the control of microbial growth, the characteristics of these organisms and their relationship to disease. Class meets for two lectures and one three-hour lab weekly. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: B110/111, B120/121, and C321 B435 - Immunology with Laboratory (3 credits) Topics covered in this course include the nature of the immune system and the immunological response including the roles of lymphocytes, cytokines, antibodies and complement. Some emphasis is placed on the malfunction and diseases of the immune system. Laboratories emphasize practice of immunological theory and the performance of immunological techniques. Class meets for two lectures and one three hour lab weekly. Offered spring semester. Prerequisites: B110/111, B120/121, and C321. Recommended: B310, B311, or B412. B450 - Radiation Biology (3 credits) The effects of radiation, particularly ionizing radiation, on molecules, cells, tissues, and the whole organism are studied. A brief background of the nature, sources and absorption of radioactive energy is presented. Some emphasis is also placed on the understanding and use of modern instrumentation and techniques available for biological research and fluorescence analysis. The class meets for three lectures weekly. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: B110/111 and B120/121. B310 is strongly recommended. B479 - Environmental Toxicology with Laboratory (4 credits) An examination of the principles, methods, and problems of environmental toxicology is presented. Topics include: pollutant dynamics in ecosystems and individuals,dose-effect relationships, sublethal toxicity, interactions between pollutants, ecosystem responses, and others. The laboratory emphasizes professional methods of contaminant analysis and toxicology. Three lecture/ discussions and one three hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. C322 - Organic Chemistry II with Laboratory (4 credits) A continuation of C321/323, this course builds upon the fundamentals presented in C321/323. It is organized by functional groups and reaction mechanisms, while integrating this knowledge into chemical synthesis. Additional topics include aromaticity, NMR and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, carbonyl chemistry, synthetic strategy, and advanced C-C bond forming reactions. Offered spring semester. Prerequisite: minimum grade of C in C321 and C323 P211 - Introductory Physics II (3 credits) This course is the second half of a two-semester introductory, calculus-based, physics course for all students planning to enter one of the scientific professions. It covers the fundamental principles of waves, physical and geometrical optics, and electricity and magnetism. Offered spring semester. Prerequisites: P201/202; concurrent with P212. P212 - Introductory Physics II Laboratory (1 credit) One three-hour laboratory is held each week covering topics studied in the lectures. Offered spring semester. Concurrent with P211. C322, P211 and P212 are required for admission to medical, dental, veterinary, and graduate schools. Other Biology Elective Courses: B105 - Environmental Biology with Laboratory (3 credits) The human position in the biological world and responsibility for living in reasonable harmony with the environs is the focus of this course. Beginning with an overview of major ecological principles governing all ecosystems, consideration is then given to such problems as population expansion, natural resources, pollution, conservation and environmental health. The class meets for two lecture sessions and one two-hour laboratory investigation or field trip each week. Offered fall semester. B200 - Human Biology (2 credits) This course is designed for the student with little science in their backgrounds. Basic human biological principles are investigated with emphasis on nutrition, cancer, immunity, reproduction and heredity. Special consideration is given to current advances in medicine and associated bio-social issues. Two lectures are held each week. Offered fall semester and in alternate spring semesters. Concurrent registration in B201 is required. B201 - Human Biology Laboratory (1 credit ) These laboratory sessions are designed to reinforce concepts presented in B200. Emphasis is given to study on the digestive, immune, excretory, circulatory, and reproductive systems. The lab meets two hours once a week. Offered fall semester and in alternate spring semesters. Concurrent registration in B200 is required. B298 - Field Experience (1-3 credits) B300 - Current Scientific Issues (3 credits) This course addresses current scientific issues of interest to the general public, ranging from modern medical advances to those affecting the environment. Stress is placed not only on the concepts involved, but also on the social, ethical, political, and economic aspects of these issues. The course is intended for non-science majors. B306 - Medical Terminology (2 credits) This course is an organ systems approach to learning and understanding medical terms. A word building programmed learning format is utilized to understand Latin and Greek prefixes and root words from which our English medical words originate. Common medical abbreviations and case studies are also incorporated into the course. The class meets for two discussion periods weekly. B315 - GIS Theory and Applications with Laboratory (2 credits) The first half of this course introduces the basic concepts necessary to an understanding of geographic information systems (GIS) including their purpose, hardware, software, data bases, and applications. Special attention is paid to the concept of map projections, coordinate systems and geo-referencing data. The second half introduces and spurs the development of core competencies with the desktop GIA Arcview. Students learn how to conduct queries, undertake simple and complex spatial analyses and develop presentations, incorporating views, charts, and images, among others. Two lecture/mini-laboratory periods per week. Offered fall semester. B323 - Plant Communities and Taxonomy with Laboratory (3 credits) A course that combines collection and identification of local terrestrial and aquatic plants with a survey and analysis of plant communities. Two lectures and one laboratory period or field trip per week. Offered fall semester. Prerequisites: B110/111, B120/121 and B301 B350 - Heredity and Society (3 credits) This course is open to non-biology majors only. In-depth coverage and discussion of topics that show how many of the contemporary social problems are related to the basic concepts of heredity. Some of the relevant bio-social problems considered are human reproduction, carcinogens, mutagens, genetic syndromes, chromosome abnormalities, aging, inbreeding, the genetic basis of behavior, genetic engineering, genetic screening, genetic counseling, and bioethics. The course meets for three lectures weekly. Offered spring semester. B370 - International Experience in Field Biology (3 credits) This course involves the study of the ecology of another country. A series of lectures on natural history, ecological communities and environmental issues is followed by a guided study tour to allow students to observe firsthand the landscapes, culture and wildlife of the region. This course is offered in the summer only. A travel fee for the study tour is required. Prerequisite: B301 B371 - Ornithology with Laboratory (3 credits) This course examines birds from aspects of ecology, behavior, taxonomy, physiology, and identification. Two one-hour lecture/discussion sessions and one three-hour lab/field trip each week. Offered in alternate fall semesters. Prerequisite: B301 B375 - Natural History Field Trip (1-2 credits) This course combines lectures and a study tour to examine geological features and ecological communities in a selected region within the continental U.S.A. that is accessible during a 7-10 day trip (e.g., the Ozark Mountains or the Everglades). The class may stay at campgrounds or other rustic accommodations during the trip. A travel fee for the study tour is required. Prerequisite: B301 B380 - Earth Science with Laboratory (3 credits) This lecture and lab course introduces students to the Earthﾒs dynamic systems. An overview of physical geology is first presented. The class then examines specific processes of erosion, transport and deposition and the resultant land forms that are produced. Other geomorphological processes are also discussed. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the inter-relatedness of these processes, and how they may impact and be altered by humans. Two lectures and one three-hour lab per week. Offered in alternate fall semesters. B384 - Pollution Ecology with Laboratory (3 credits) This course involves an examination of major pollutants and their sources; ecological, health, and economic effects; and control technology. Class sessions emphasize industry, transportation, agriculture and energy production. Laboratories emphasize monitoring equipment and techniques. Two one-hour lecture/discussion sessions and one three-hour laboratory or field trip per week. Offered in alternate spring semesters. Prerequisite: B301 B385 - Freshwater Ecology with Laboratory (3 credits) Advanced studies of the freshwater aquatic ecosystems, both lotic and lentic, are undertaken. Emphasis is placed on ecological adaptations, life histories, and interactions between organisms and their physical environment. Secondary emphasis is placed on aquatic ecosystem production and measurement. Two lectures and one three-hour laboratory each week. Offered in alternate fall semesters. Prerequisite: B340. B460 - Sustainable Resource Management (2 credits) A course that examines the causes of environmental problems and the interconnections among environmental issues, with the goal of providing a framework for the search for long term solutions. Two lectures/discussion sessions per week. Offered spring semester. Prerequisites: a course in ecology and junior or senior standing. B465 - Herpetology with Laboratory (2 credits) This course provides an introduction to the biology of amphibians and reptiles, with an emphasis on the ecology, distribution, and conservation of the species found in Minnesota and neighboring states. One lecture/discussion period and one lab period per week, with the possibility for some evening or weekend field trips. Offered in alternate fall semesters. Prerequisite: a course in ecology or instructorﾒs consent. B475 - Ichthyology with Laboratory (3 credits) A course on the classification, morphology, physiology, and ecology of fishes. Two lectures and one laboratory period per week. Laboratory activities may include individual student projects and the collection and identification of Midwestern fishes. Offered in alternate spring semesters. Prerequisite: a course in ecology or instructorﾒs consent. B480 - Human Genetics (2 credits) All aspects of genetics as they pertain to the human are discussed. These topics include the human genome, inborn errors of metabolism, Mendelian inheritance, human cytogenetics, gene mapping, complex traits, consanguinity, cancer genetics, behavioral genetics, and gene therapy. In every case, connections are made to applications and issues pervading society. Class meets for two lectures/discussions weekly. Offered spring semester. Prerequisite: B310. B481-489 - Topics in Biology (1-3 credits) Concepts and/or current issues in biology are presented. The topic changes each time it is offered. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. B490 - Fisheries Biology with Laboratory (3 credits) An introduction to fisheries biology, this course has a lecture emphasis on population dynamics and lake, pond, and stream fishery management. Attention is given to the recreational and commercial value of freshwater fish species. Lab and field studies emphasize field fish collection techniques, taxonomy, population studies, energetics, and age and growth studies. Two lectures and one three-hour lab/field study weekly. Offered in alternate fall semesters. Prerequisite: B340. B491 - Wildlife Ecology and Management with Laboratory (3 credits) This course is an introduction to wildlife ecology with emphasis on techniques, population dynamics, recreational and commercial value. Wildlife management techniques are also introduced through study of case histories of selected species. Two hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory/field trip each week. Offered in alternate spring semesters. Prerequisite: B301 B494 - Environmental Experience (1-5 credits) This experience is designed for those students who want exposure to the world of post-graduate work, but not to the degree required for an internship. It would consist of a part-time assignment off-campus with an environmental agency. The work experience must be approved by the environmental committee and completed during one semester or one summer. B496/497 - Biology Internship (1-17 credits) This experience is arranged individually for interested students and provides an opportunity for the student to work with/for a public or private entity and become familiar with biologically related aspects of the entity. The biology internship, although flexible, must be a biological learning situation with a final report required. Juniors or seniors are eligible and must have the consent of the department chair. B498 - Allied Health Internship (6-32 credits minimum) This internship is an intensive 9-12 month involvement at an approved and accredited school of cytogenetics, cytotechnology, medical technology, or nuclear medicine technology.